Anti-Fascism



Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies, organizations and governments. There is a difference between anti-fascism as a political movement, and personal opposition to fascism. In the broadest sense, an anti-fascist is anyone who disagrees with fascism or engages in anti-fascist direct action. This includes most mainstream political parties and groups in the Western world, including both leftists and moderate rightists. Anti-fascist political movements have been historically associated with left-wing movements such as anarchism, communism and socialism. However, many anti-fascists aren't associated with those ideologies. Another term for anti-fascism (or anti-fascists) is antifa.

Most major resistance movements during World War II were anti-fascist, although some people who joined the resistance weren't technically anti-fascists. In France, quite a few people who joined the Resistance against the Vichy regime came from far right nationalist and royalist backgrounds. They abandoned the Vichy regime and started fighting against the Germans when they saw that Philippe Pétain was totally bending over to the Nazis and had no intent to stop collaboration.

Within the anti-fascism movement, there are two broad positions: militant anti-fascism and liberal anti-fascism. There's also disagreement about whether violence is justified in the struggle against fascism. Some anti-fascists believe violence is not justified, since fascists don't represent a massive physical threat in many areas. They argue that the battle should be fought intellectually.

Violence played an important role in the 1920s and the 1930s, when anti-fascists confronted aggressive far right leagues, such as the Action Française movement in France, which dominated the Quartier latin students' neighborhood. In Italy in the 1920s, anti-fascists had to fight against the violent Squadristi. In Germany, anti-fascists were in conflict with the Freikorps. Today, neo-Nazis pose a genuine physical threat in numerous areas, and have even killed people. Militant anti-fascists claim that self-defence is necessary because the state can't be depended on to defend all communities. Liberal anti-fascists, however, respond that not all neo-Nazi organisations are directly responsible for physical violence, and that engaging in physical vigilante violence provides them with a sympathy chip in that it allows them to depict themselves as the moral high ground and anti-fascism as a violent gang activity.

Anti-fascist organisations

Pre-World War II

* National Blue Shirt Minutemen

World War II

* Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League
* Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa
* Armia Krajowa
* Auxiliary Units
* Belarusian resistance movement
* Czech resistance to Nazi occupation
* Danish resistance movement
* Edelweißpiraten
* Estonian resistance movement
* Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje
* French resistance
* German resistance movement
* Greek Resistance
* Gwardia Ludowa
* Italian resistance movement
* Jewish resistance movement
* July 20 Plot
* Kreisau Circle
* Latvian resistance movement
* Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army
* Maquis
* Dutch resistance movement
* Norwegian resistance movement
* Operation Spark (1940)
* Philippine resistance movement
* People's Liberation Army
* Polish resistance movement in World War II
* Red Orchestra
* Slovak resistance movement
* Swing Kids
* White Rose
* Valkenburg resistance
* Yugoslav resistance movement
* Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa
* Zydowski Zwiazek Walki

Post-World War II

* 43 Group
* Anti-Fascist Action
* Anti-Nazi League
* Anti-Racist Action
* Antifascistisk aktion
* Fight Dem Back
* Pacifica Foundation
* RASH
* Searchlight magazine
* Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice
* Unite Against Fascism

Anti-fascist Individuals

* Mordechaj Anielewicz
* Hannah Arendt
* Tony Blackplait
* Joseph Bonanno
* Willy Brandt
* Menno ter Braak
* Albert Camus
* Emil Carlebach
* Daniel Cohn-Bendit
* Benedetto Croce
* Buenaventura Durruti
* Albert Einstein
* Carl Einstein
* Georg Elser
* David Emory
* David Frankfurter
* Jozef Gabčík
* Leone Ginzburg
* Kurt Goldstein
* Antonio Gramsci
* Israel Holmgren
* Erich Honecker
* Ernst Kirchweger
* Jan Kubiš
* Uno Laht
* Marinus van der Lubbe
* Georg Lukács
* Herbert Marcuse
* Jean Moulin
* Edvard Munch
* Ture Nerman
* George Orwell
* Sylvia Pankhurst
* Sandro Pertini
* Christian Pineau
* Phil Piratin
* Jean-Paul Sartre
* Vidal Sassoon
* Hannie Schaft
* Kurt Schumacher
* Josip Broz Tito
* Leon Trotsky
* Walter Vielhauer
* Nancy Wake
* Simon Wiesenthal

Anti-fascist musicians

* Angelic Upstarts
* Anti-Flag
* Atari Teenage Riot
* Attila the Stockbroker
* Aus-Rotten
* Billy Bragg
* Blaggers I.T.A.
* Chumbawamba
* The Clash
* Dead Kennedys
* D.O.A.
* The Flowers of Romance
* MDC
* Naked Aggression
* Napalm Death
* Oi Polloi
* The Oppressed
* Phil Ochs
* Propagandhi
* Rage Against the Machine
* Reagan Youth
* Red Alert
* The Redskins
* Refused
* The Ruts
* Subhumans
* System of a Down
* Woody GuthriePermission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.
Virtual Magic is a human knowledge database blog. Text Based On Information From Wikipedia, Under The GNU Free Documentation License. Copyright (c) 2007 Virtual Magic. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

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