Are You Ready?

The Rapture is an event in certain systems of Christian eschatology (the study of the end times) in which it is believed that all born-again Christians will be taken from Earth into Heaven by Jesus Christ. Although almost all forms of Christianity believe that those who are "saved" will have eternal life, the term "rapture" is usually applied specifically to the belief that Christians will be "taken" into Heaven at a specific moment. Its introduction and popularization in Christian belief is relatively recent, and the teachings of older Churches do not include any such doctrine.

The timing of "when" the rapture will take place is a key point often discussed and debated between denominations and individuals who accept the belief. One belief ("dispensationalist" or "futurist" interpretations) is that the rapture will take place at an unknown period of time prior to the beginning of the seven year tribulation, and that at that time only non-Christians will be left on the earth. However, according to the dispensationalist view, many will come to know Christ during the time of the tribulation, before he returns to set up His Kingdom of God/earthly kingdom. Others believe that the rapture will be a very audible and visible event which takes place after the events of the tribulation, right at the Second Coming of Christ in which the righteous will be taken up in the clouds to meet Christ upon his return. Other Christians teach that Jesus will return when all on Earth have come to worship Him as their savior. Thus, in accordance with the teaching of the Second Coming, when everyone accepts Jesus as their savior, he will return, and the Earth as we know it will end.

The word "rapture" comes from the same root as rapt: the Latin verb rapere, or the adjective raeptius, which means "carried away by force, caught up." The 405 AD Vulgate translation used it in 1 Thessalonians 4:17, which is the primary biblical reference usually quoted for the Rapture event. The specific form used is rapiemur, "we shall be caught up", translating the original Greek harpagēsometha (ἁρπαγησόμεθα) (passive voice, future tense of harpazō (ἁρπάζω): "snatch away, carry off.")

However, the word "rapture" itself is found nowhere in English Bible translations nor in its original Greek or Hebrew documents.

The popularization of the term is associated with teaching of John Nelson Darby and the rise of premillennialism and dispensationalism in the United States at the end of the 19th century.

In 1908, the doctrine of the rapture was further popularized by an evangelist named William Eugene Blackstone, whose book, Jesus Is Coming, sold more than one million copies, and then by its inclusion in the Scofield Reference Bible in 1909.

Among Christians who do believe in the Rapture, there is substantial debate about the timing of the rapture relative to the seven-year Tribulation. The upsurgence in belief in the "Pre-Tribulation" Rapture is often attributed to a 15-year old Scott-Irish girl named Margaret MacDonald (a follower of Edward Irving), who in 1830 had a vision that was later published in 1861. Some pre-Tribulation proponents maintain that the earliest known extra-biblical reference to the "pre-Tribulation" rapture is from a sermon by "pseudo-Ephraem", attributed to a fourth century Byzantine, Ephraem of Nisibis, in which he is quoted as saying, "For all the saints and Elect of God are gathered, prior to the tribulation that is to come, and are taken to the Lord lest they see the confusion that is to overwhelm the world because of our sins." However, there are opposing views to the interpretation of this writing.

Others argue as well that the oldest known reference to a great tribulation to come and a possible escape from it is contained in The Shepherd of Hermas manuscript dated to the second century. Although much of what is recorded in this text is not in Scripture, and is of no doctrinal value, although considered profitable for reading, it nonetheless makes mention of a series of visions that appeared to the shepherd. The first vision was of a giant raging bull, and the Shepherd was able to escape harm from by relying on God for protection. The next vision encountered was that of a beautiful maiden, identified by the shepherd as the church. She identifies the bull as the great tribulation to come, and tells him he escaped it by putting his trust in God. She then charges him to go tell all other believers they can also escape the coming tribulation but only if they also put full faith in the Lord. This interpretation to the Shepherd's visions is, however, not accepted by scholars, as it is clearly taking the Shepherd's visions out of context. The "escape" of the "beautiful maiden" does not refer to a rapture, or being taken out of the tribulation, but it refers to going through the tribulation and yet coming out victorious from it by faith in the Lord.

There exists at least one 18th century and two 19th century Pre-Tribulation references prior to Macdonald - in a book published in 1788, in the writings of a Catholic priest Emmanuel Lacunza in 1812, and by John Darby himself in 1827,. However, both the book published in 1788 and the writings of Lacunza have opposing views regarding their interpretations, as well. It is inargueable, however, that John Darby did mantain the pre-tribulation position.

In 1957, Dr. John Walvoord, a theologian at Dallas Theological Seminary, authored a book, "The Rapture Question," that gave theological support to the pre-tribulation rapture; this book eventually sold over 65,000 copies.

In 1958, J. Dwight Pentecost authored another book supporting the pre-tribulation rapture, "Things to Come: A Study in Biblical Eschatology" that sold 215,000 copies.

During the 1970s, the Rapture became popular in wider circles, in part due to the books of Hal Lindsey, including The Late Great Planet Earth. Lindsey based his analysis that the rapture was imminent on world conditions at the time. The Cold War figured prominently in his predictions of Armageddon, and other aspects of 1970s global politics were seen as having been predicted in the Bible. Lindsey believed, for example, that the 7 headed beast with 10 horns, cited in Revelation, was the European Economic Community, a forebearer of the European Union, which at the time consisted of ten nations.

In 1995, the doctrine of the pre-tribulation rapture was further popularized by Tim LaHaye's book series, Left Behind, which has sold tens of millions of copies and has been made into several movies.

The doctrine of the Rapture continues to be an important component in fundamentalist Christian eschatology today. Many Christians continue to feel that world conditions point to the rapture occurring soon. Although this belief is strongly held in many US denominations, these views continue to resonate in certain circles around the world.

Dispensationalism is referred to as the Pre-Tribulation Rapture, or simply "Pre-Trib". This is the belief that the Rapture will occur at the beginning of the 70th Week of Daniel, the final seven years of this age. Christian believers will be translated into immortal bodies in the Rapture before the great persecutions by the Antichrist as he comes into his Beast role midway through the final seven years. According to this view, the Christian Church that existed prior to that seven year period has no vital role during the seven years of Tribulation. However, one should keep in mind that the Bible affirms that the Church is made up of individual Christians. If the rapture occurs according to pre-trib doctrine, many others will believe in the Jesus Christ of the Bible and will be saved, despite having missed the "rapture" and will now have to go through that tribulation period with everyone else on the Earth. When those people become new Christians, they will be part of "the Church" on earth during this time period. They will witness during the first three and one half years, and they will also witness during the last three and a half years, or 1260 days of the Great Tribulation, which follow. The pre-trib rapture is sometimes presented as minority opinion among Christians, but it has become popular in recent years around the world and through the work of dispensational preachers such as Tim LaHaye and Hal Lindsey.

The other main view is termed the Post Tribulation Rapture (or "Post-Trib"). This view admits the concept of "rapture" from 1 Thessalonians, but does not see an intervening 7-year period (or 3 and half-year period depending on scholar) between the rapture and the return of Christ. This viewpoint is that Christian believers will be on earth as witnesses to Christ during the entire seven years and right up until the last day of this age. This includes the final three and one half years of the age believed to be the time period of the Antichrist in his malevolent role as the Beast. The post-trib view is supported by Matthew 24:29–31 "Immediately after the tribulation of those days...they shall gather together his elect..." Both views hold that Christian believers will be either removed from, or protected from, the judgement when the wrath of God falls and the wicked are carried off at the end of the age.

The Prewrath Rapture view teaches that at the midpoint of the "7 year period" the "abomination of desolation" will begin the Antichrist's Great Tribulation (this is not God's wrath; rather the object of persecution during this time will be the church, not the ungodly). Then according to Jesus sometime during the Great Tribulation--we do not know the day or hour--it will be cut short (not the 70th week cut short, rather the Great Tribulation which is Antichrist's persecution) with the Coming of Christ to deliver the righteous (rapture) and then the subsequent Day of the Lord's wrath against the ungodly will follow for the remaining 7 year period.

Specific dates for the Rapture have been predicted by many people. The major evangelical website Rapture Ready offers a detailed list. A more extensive list is available from A Brief History of the Apocalypse.

Some notable predictions include these:

* 1988 - Publication of 88 Reasons why the Rapture is in 1988, by Edgar C. Whisenant.

* 1989 - Publication of The final shout: Rapture report 1989, by Edgar Whisenant. More predictions by this author appeared for 1992, 1995, and other years.

* 1992 - Korean group "Mission for the Coming Days " predicted October 28, 1992 as the date for the rapture.
* 1993 - Seven years before the year 2000. The Rapture would have to start to allow for seven years of the Tribulation before the Return in 2000. Multiple predictions.

* 1994 - Pastor John Hinkle of Christ Church in Los Angeles predicted June 9, 1994.

* 1997 - Stan Johnson of the Prophecy Club predicted September 12, 1997.

* 1998 - Marilyn Agee, in The End of the Age, predicted May 31, 1998.

* 2000 - Many "millennial" predictions.

Predictions continue to appear in fundamentalist literature and speeches, but none has yet come to pass.

Although there are alternative interpretaions, the Rapture interpretation states that in the near future dead believers in Jesus will be brought back to life and believers who have never died will be changed in the "twinkling of an eye" and both groups will be taken up to heaven.

Supporters for this belief generally cite the following primary sources in the New Testament:

* "In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed." (1 Corinthians 15:52)
* 1 Thessalonians 4:15 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not preceed them which are asleep. 16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: 17 Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.
* "(Christ) shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself." (Philippians 3:21)
* John 14:2 In my Father's house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. John 14:3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also.
* "Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one will be left. Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left." (Matthew 24:40–41, part of the Olivet discourse, also said to be a passage indicating judgment rather than the Rapture)

Generally, an elaborate set of predictions about the end times is constructed from these sets of verses, together with various interpretations of the Book of Revelation and the predictions of Christ's return in Matthew 24:30–36. In general, believers in the rapture consider the present to be the end times, and offer interpretations of the various symbolisms in the book of Revelation in terms of contemporary world events.

* Many Christians who do not agree that there will be a pre-tribulation Rapture of the Church point out that it is a relatively new doctrine, first popularized in the 1800s and elaborated on subsequently. There are whole denominations holding this view. The Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox do not accept it either, as such a thing as "rapture" was never taught by any of their bishops, from the beginning. Instead of "being taken up into Heaven", these churches follow the scriptures (such as Isaiah) clearly describing a physical Kingdom of Heaven that will be on a renewed Earth, following the Great Tribulation, the Resurrection of the Dead, and Judgment Day.

* Many do not accept the pre-Tribulation rapture interpretation because they believe that it is not clearly expressed in the Bible, but instead relies on extrapolations and inferences made from unconnected verses. Many further believe that if anything this significant were intended to be a major part of Christian teaching, then surely Christ would have made a plain reference to it in his own sermons as recorded in the Gospel, and not buried such a major prophecy in a few verses of the Apostle Paul.

* One common criticism of the pre-Tribulation rapture is based on the assumption that the necessity of believing in Christ would be proven, by the events of the rapture, to anyone left behind. Thus anyone left behind who had knowledge of the rapture theory, but previously did not believe in Christ, would essentially be forced, by the proof of this miracle, to believe. This would prevent any type of Antichrist from having any credibility.

* Most Roman Catholics and many Protestants do not accept the concept of a pre-Tribulation rapture in which some are "taken up into Heaven" before the end of the world, because as mentioned, it is claimed that this idea did not exist in the teachings of any Christians until the 1800s, so it cannot be said to belong to Apostolic Tradition. Instead, most Catholics and many Protestants interpret 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 literally, and assert that the rapture will immediately follow the general resurrection on Judgment Day, when the living and the newly-resurrected-dead will rise up to meet Christ as he descends from heaven to judge the world (known as the Parousia). This is analogous to the common custom in which the people would go outside the gates of a kingdom to meet their returning king. Catholics and post-tribulation protestants consider the rapture to be merely a minor detail in the Biblical description of the Second Coming of Christ.

* Barbara R. Rossing, a Lutheran minister, challenges the idea of the rapture in her 2004 book The Rapture Exposed: The Message of Hope in the Book of Revelation. In it, she discusses the history of dispensationalism, arguing that the Biblical verses cited in support of the rapture are grossly taken out of context and misinterpreted.

* There are also a number of other objections to the rapture theory. Those scriptures offered in support of the rapture do not require a rapture for their fulfillment.

* Plus, inasmuch as the rapture theory requires belief that Christ will visit the Earth not once more -- but twice -- it's important to note that the New Testament speaks of Christ's return in the singular only.

* The question to ask is, does the church meet Christ in the air and then ascend to heaven, or meet Christ as he returns in fulfillment of the angel's description in Acts 1:9-11:

"After (Jesus) said this, he was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight. They were looking intently up into the sky as he was going, when suddenly two men dressed in white stood beside them. 'Men of Galilee,' they said, 'why do you stand here looking into the sky? This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.'"

In Acts, Jesus is standing on the ground, taken up into the sky, then hidden in a cloud. The angel said Christ would return the same way: He will appear from a cloud, descend to the ground, and place his feet on the earth. From this it would appear likely that Christ will return just as the angel foretold, and that the church will simply meet him upon his return.

The word "meet" in the New Testament (Strong's, 529) is always used in the context of intercepting someone who is on his way toward the meeting place.

* As for Christ's words, "as it was in the days of Noah", we again find reason to question the pre-tribulation rapture theory. The Bible indicates that in the days of Noah, it was the wicked who were taken, and the righteous (the eight members of Noah's family) were first lifted from the earth, then returned to it; the righteous thus were left behind.

* The other text upon which a pre-tribulation rapture is based is Luke 17:34-35 (parallel Matt. 24:40-41). In English we often express the direction of a verb by adding a preposition to it. Thus we say “take in, ”take up,” take down” take away.” In Greek the directional aspect of a verb instead is often expressed as a prefix to the verb. For example, in vs. 40 the word to “take” is the Greek word “paralambano” whose primary meaning is to “take to oneself.” If the writer had wished to express the direction “up” he would have place the prefix “ana..” to “lambano. He did not. He added the prefix “para.”

The author could also have used another Greek word to express the idea of “lifting up.” “Epairo” means “to lift up.” The verb “epairo” is used to describe God taking Jesus up to heaven in Acts 1:9. Luke wrote both the gospel and the book of Acts. If Luke in Luke 17:34 had wanted to say that we are going to be taken up into heaven would he not have used the same word that Luke did to describe Jesus being “taken up” in Acts? Why would the same writer not use the same word to express the same idea?

It is not clear what Luke 17:34 means. It may mean that the person in the field is to be taken to Christ when he returns to earth. Or it may describe an arrest by the Roman or Jewish police. In Matt. 27:27 and John 19:16 the word take – “paralambano “ is used to describe Jesus’ arrest. One thing is clear. It does not mean to “take up.”

* The post-tribulation rapture is entirely consistent with the primary rapture text in I Thessalonians 4:17. The text there could just as easily be interpreted to mean that the church will rise to meet Christ as he returns to earth, the wicked below will be swept to destruction as it was in the days of Noah, (they will worship fallen angels) and then the church will descend to the earth with the Eternal King.

* As the famous Baptist theologian Dale Moody wrote: "Belief in a pre-tribulational rapture . . . contradicts all three chapters in the New Testament that mention the tribulation and the rapture together (Mark 13:24–27; Matt. 24:26–31; 2 Thess. 2:1–12). . . . The theory is so biblically bankrupt that the usual defence is made using three passages that do not even mention a tribulation (John 14:3; 1 Thess. 4:17; 1 Cor. 15:52). These are important passages, but they have not had one word to say about a pre-tribulational rapture. The score is 3 to 0, three passages for a post-tribulational rapture and three that say nothing on the subject.

. . . Pre-tribulationism is biblically bankrupt and does not know it" (The Word of Truth, 556–7).

Many say the revelation being 200 years old can hardly be consider "new", but many do not take into account that the Catholic and Orthodox churches have been around for an estimated 1,700 years.

* Regarding that the doctrine is newly popularized. Being preached by various men prior to 1800, the doctrine is at least 200 years old, hardly new. Others point out that the doctrine was taught by the earliest Church fathers, Polycarp and Clement. Further, Daniel in Daniel 12:4 wrote that "knowledge shall be increased".
* Regarding that the doctrine is unclear. When asked why he taught in confusing and hard to understand parables, Jesus said in Matthew 13:11 that he taught in parables to hide the "mysteries of the kingdom of Heaven" from those who were not his followers.
* Regarding the miracle of the rapture, forcing people to believe. The Old Testament book of Exodus records that God appeared to the Israelites in a Theophany, as a visible pillar of fire or smoke, and bestowed daily miracles, yet many of the people rebelled against God; this point and the one following (Luke 16:31), rebut the theory that all those left behind in a rapture, but previously did not believe in Christ, would necessarily be forced, by the proof of this miracle, to believe. Additionally, in Luke 16:31 Jesus states of unbelievers, "If they do not listen to Moses and the Prophets, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead." (NIV)
* Regarding that the rapture happens at the end of the tribulation, as Christ returns physically, and Christians would meet him in the air. If this were the case, then when would Christians ever ascend into heaven to be with Jesus in their heavenly mansions, as described in John 14:2-3?
* When comparing the end times to the Flood, the Rapture of the Church can correspond to the translation of Enoch in Genesis 5:24. "Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, because God took him away." (NIV) Meanwhile, Noah and his family who endure the judgement and survive correspond to redeemed Israel. It is theorized that those that became believers during the tribulation and were not martyred would retain their physical bodies for Christ's 1000 year rule on Earth after the Beast was vanquished to hell. This would explain an Earth "in the days of Noah", when the righteous were left.
* After Revelation 4:1, we see God calling John to, "Come up here." Some believe this refers to the end of the church age because it follows the passages in Revelation about the churches and because John is called and taken up.
* Some believe that Jesus refers to the rapture in Matthew 24. These same people generally believe that Matthew 24:37 ("But as the days of Noah were, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be") correlates to Genesis 5:24 ("And Enoch walked with God; and he was not, for God took him"). In Matthew, Jesus may be referring to a future rapture by referencing a past one.
* Epharaem the Syrian said, in 373 AD, "For all the saints and Elect of God are gathered, prior to the tribulation that is to come, and are taken to the Lord lest they see the confusion that is to overwhelm the world because of our sins."
* Regarding who is taken and who is left in Luke 17 and Matthew 24. The word for "taken" is paralambano, which is the same word used in John 14:2-3, where Jesus says he will take us to be with him. Yes, paralambano is a word that is also used to describe being taken, as in being arrested, as it is the word used to describe Jesus' arrest in Matthew 27:27. However, the word translated as rapture, harpazo, from 1 Thessalonians 4:17 is also used to describe Paul's arrest in Acts 23:10. So the world paralambano is very similar to harpazo, both words meaning "taken", both words used to describe an arrest, and both words used to describe the rapture.
* Regarding that three rapture passages (John 14:3; 1 Thess. 4:17; 1 Cor. 15:52) not mentioning a tribulation, somehow being supportive of a post tribulation rapture. If they do not mention a tribulation, they also do not mention the rapture being after the tribulation! But 1 Thess 5:9, does say, "For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ," and wrath is a description of the tribulation.

* The 1941 religious propaganda film The Rapture calls to the faithful to make sure that they are ready for the rapture and shows the fate of those left behind.

* The 1972 four-part movie series starting with A Thief in the Night, which chronicled events before and after the rapture, in an intentionally frightening way, produced by Russell S. Doughten.

* The 1991 film The Rapture, about one woman's experience of the rapture, starring Mimi Rogers and David Duchovony. The film shows the progression of Mimi Roger's character from hedonistic swinger to devout Christian, and finally to rejection of God even after the Rapture has taken place.

* The Rapture is a major component of the premise of the Left Behind books and their various spin-offs. Again these books greatly revived public interest in this concept.

* Episode 19 in season 16 of The Simpsons, titled "Thank God, it's Doomsday" features Homer predicting the Rapture. After seeing a movie titled "Left Below" (a parody of "Left Behind"), he becomes paranoid and predicts that the Rapture will occur at 3:15 p.m. on May 18.

* At the heights of the Jesus Movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Rapture figured prominently in popular songs by secular artists such as "Are You Ready?" by Pacific Gas & Electric (#14 in August 1970) and "In The Year 2525" by Zager and Evans (#1 in July 1969). Other songs about the Christian end times are "Goin' By The Book" as well as "The Man Comes Around" by Johnny Cash and "Tribulation" by Charlie Daniels. Later popular songs based on the Apocalypse, if not explicitly the Rapture, are "1999" by Prince and "It's The End Of The World As We Know It (And I Feel Fine)" by REM.

* The band Sonic Youth, released their 21st album Rather Ripped, which features a song called "Do You Believe in Rapture?".

* In Brian Flemming's 2005 documentary The God Who Wasn't There, Scott Butcher, founder of the website, speaks about the rapture.

* On August 2, 2001, humorist Elroy Willis posted a Usenet article entitled "Mistaken Rapture Kills Arkansas Woman". This fictional, satirical story, about a woman who causes a traffic accident and is killed when she believes the Rapture has started, circulated widely on the Internet and was believed by many people to be a description of an actual incident. Elements of the story appeared in an episode of the HBO television drama Six Feet Under, and a slightly modified version of the story was reprinted in the US tabloid newspaper Weekly World News. The story continues to circulate via electronic mail as a chain letter.

* In Russ Doughten's A Thief in the Night, the Rapture was depicted as people disappearing. In Left Behind, it was depicted as people disappearing, but leaving their clothes behind in a pile. If they were driving cars, they careen into other cars upon losing their drivers. The view is echoed in the popular bumper sticker which reads "In case of Rapture, this car will be unmanned."

* In Mark E. Rogers' "The Dead", those chosen for salvation disappear in a blinding flash of light. It is possible for people who have been left behind to redeem themselves in the eyes of God; those who do are immediately Raptured. Sacrificing oneself to help others is one way of being redeemed. Some characters are actually under attack by the reanimated corpses, or by Legion himself, at the time of their Rapture. The blinding flash of light totally disorients the corpses who witness it, rendering them incapable of any action at all for a short period of time. The humans are literally "caught up" "in an instant" by God.

* In 2006 The Rapture Is At Hand was published as a work of Hypertext fiction This satirical work of fiction is billed as a Choose Your Own Afterlife novella, mimicing the CYOA acronym of the popular Choose Your Own Adventure children's books, which were published for two decades. This novella is set in a Rapture imminent Bible Belt. It is up to the reader to decide whether to remain or depart for the more secular-minded Northeast. There are 24 possible endings, some of which portray the Rapture as occurring. The Rapture occurs in these endings in various ways, none of which subscribe to any accepted Christian Eschatological view.

* In 2006 Senses Fail's new CD titled 'Still Searching' Included a song titled 'The Rapture'.

* In 2006 Hurt's debut cd 'Vol. 1' included a song titled 'Rapture'

While some of these views may have been popular for many years beforehand, there is no doubt that these movies and novels have influenced some people's thinking on the "rapture". Many rapture fiction novels demonstrate a different understanding of the gospel and the Christian life than that taught within the historic "orthodoxy" of evangelical Protestantism. This issue is explored in Rapture Fiction and the Evangelical Crisis by Crawford Gribben, 2006, ISBN 0-85234-610-7.Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.
Virtual Magic is a human knowledge database blog. Text Based On Information From Wikipedia, Under The GNU Free Documentation License. Copyright (c) 2007 Virtual Magic. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

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