Henry Kissinger



Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, Nobel laureate and statesman. He served as National Security Advisor and later Secretary of State in the Nixon administration, continuing in the latter position after Gerald Ford became President in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal.

A proponent of Realpolitik, Kissinger played a dominant role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. During this time, he pioneered the policy of détente that led to a significant relaxation in US–Soviet tensions and played a crucial role in 1972 talks with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai that concluded with the "opening" of China and the formation of a new strategic anti-Soviet Sino–American alliance. He was a recipient of the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end the Vietnam War.

Kissinger favored the maintenance of friendly diplomatic relationships with anti-Communist military dictatorships in the Southern Cone and elsewhere in Latin America, and approved of covert intervention in Chilean politics. He has been accused of complicity and encouragement in the atrocities committed by the Argentine military junta. Spanish judge Baltasar Garzon requested that Kissinger answer questions about matters relating to these humans rights abuses, but the US State Department rejected this petition.

During his time in the Nixon and Ford administrations he cut a flamboyant figure, appearing at social occasions with many of America's most celebrated beauties. His foreign policy record made him enemies amongst anti-war liberals and conservative anti-Communist hawks alike; controversy surrounding Kissinger has by no means receded in the years since.

With the recent declassification of Nixon and Ford administration documents relating to US policy toward South America and East Timor, Kissinger has come under fire from certain journalists and human rights advocacy groups, both in the US and abroad. Several have accused him of having committed war crimes; author and journalist Christopher Hitchens is perhaps most prominent among the accusers.

Kissinger was born in Fürth in Franconia (Bavaria) as Heinz Alfred Kissinger to Jewish parents Louis Kissinger and Paula Stern. His name refers to the city of Bad Kissingen. In 1938, fleeing Adolf Hitler's persecution, his family moved to New York. Kissinger was naturalized a US citizen on June 19, 1943 while in military training at Camp Croft in Spartanburg SC.

He spent his high school years in the Washington Heights section of upper Manhattan but never lost his pronounced German accent. Kissinger attended George Washington High School at night and worked in a shaving-brush factory during the day. While attending City College of New York, in 1943, he was drafted into the Army, trained at Clemson College in South Carolina, and became a German interpreter for the 970th Counter Intelligence Corps. Kissinger was legendary for his ability to find and arrest former Gestapo agents in immediate post-war Germany.

Henry Kissinger received his B.A. degree summa cum laude at Harvard College in 1950, where he studied under William Yandell Elliott. Kissinger has been rumored to be the only person to receive a perfect grade point average from Harvard, but in fact he received one B in his senior year. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees at Harvard University in 1952 and 1954, respectively. His doctoral dissertation was titled A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace 1812–22. Kissinger's doctoral dissertation was a continuation of his undergraduate thesis, which at 383 pages prompted the "Kissinger rule" restricting future senior theses to less than one-half that length (150 pages).

A liberal Republican and keen to have a greater influence on American foreign policy, Kissinger became a supporter of and advisor to Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of New York, who sought the Republican nomination for President in 1960, 1964 and 1968. After Richard Nixon won the presidency in 1968, he offered Kissinger the job of national security adviser.

With his first wife, Ann Fleischer, he had two children, Elizabeth and David. He currently lives with his second wife, Nancy Maginnes, in Kent, Connecticut. He is the head of Kissinger Associates, a consulting firm.

Kissinger is well known as being a New York Yankees fan. He is also a great fan and honorary member of the German soccer club Spielvereinigung Greuther Fürth from his hometown, where he was a member in his youth.

Under Nixon, Kissinger served as National Security Advisor from 1969 to 1973 and then Secretary of State until 1977, staying on board as Secretary of State under President Gerald Ford following Nixon's 1974 resignation in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal.

As National Security Advisor under Nixon, Kissinger pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, seeking a relaxation in tensions between the two superpowers. As a part of this strategy, he negotiated the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (culminating in the SALT I treaty) and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party.

He sought to place diplomatic pressure on the Soviet Union; to accomplish this, he made two secret trips to the People's Republic of China in July and October 1971 to confer with Premier Zhou Enlai, then in charge of Chinese foreign policy. This paved the way for the groundbreaking 1972 summit between Nixon, Zhou, and Communist Party of China Chairman Mao Zedong, as well as the formalization of relations between the two countries, ending 23 years of diplomatic isolation and mutual hostility. The result was the formation of a tacit strategic anti-Soviet alliance between China and the United States. Today, Kissinger is often remembered by Chinese leaders as "the old friend of the Chinese people." While Kissinger's diplomacy led to economic and cultural exchanges between the two sides and the establishment of Liaison Offices in the Chinese and American capitals, full normalization of relations with the People's Republic of China would not occur until 1979 as Watergate overshadowed the latter years of the Nixon Presidency and the United States continued to recognize the Republic of China government on Taiwan.

Kissinger's involvement in Vietnam started prior to his appointment as National Security Adviser to Nixon. Kissinger was a secret informant to the Nixon campaign where he passed confidential information from the Johnson administration's negotiators in the Paris peace talks to John Mitchell, Nixon's campaign manager. Nixon had been elected in 1968 on the promise of achieving "peace with honor" and ending the Vietnam War. Once in office, he began implementing a policy of Vietnamization that aimed to gradually withdraw U.S. troops while expanding the combat role of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) so that it would be capable of independently defending South Vietnam against the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam and North Vietnamese army (Vietnam People's Army or PAVN). At the same time, Kissinger, with Nixon's support, played a key role in expanding American bombing campaigns into Cambodia to target PAVN and Viet Cong units launching raids against South Vietnam. The 1969-70 bombing campaign was initially secret and ignited significant anti-war protests in the U.S., particularly at university campuses, when it and the 1970 Cambodian Incursion by US and South Vietnamese troops became known. During a protest May 4, 1970 at Kent State University the National Guard shot and killed four students, and wounded nine others. The bombing campaign also inadvertently contributed to the chaos of the Cambodian Civil War, which saw the forces of dictator Lon Nol unable to defeat the growing Khmer Rouge insurgency that would emerge victorious in 1975.

Kissinger was awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize along with North Vietnamese diplomatic representative Lê Ðức Thọ for their work in negotiating an end to the war in Vietnam and American withdrawal. Kissinger accepted the award, but Tho declined, claiming that the peace agreement was not being implemented. Due to fears of disruption from anti-war protesters Kissinger did not collect the award in person, and it was accepted on his behalf by United States Ambassador to Norway Thomas R. Byrne. War continued in Vietnam until a North Vietnamese victory in 1975.

Kissinger has been criticized for his role during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. Despite reports of atrocities in East Pakistan, and despite being told—most notably in the Blood telegram—of 'genocidal' activities being perpetrated by Pakistani forces, Kissinger and President Richard Nixon did nothing to discourage Pakistani President Yahya Khan and the Pakistan Army. Kissinger was particularly concerned about Soviet expansion into South Asia as a result of a treaty of friendship that had recently been signed between India and the Soviet Union, and sought to demonstrate to the People's Republic of China the value of a tacit alliance with the United States.

In recent years, Kissinger came under fire for comments made during the Indo-Pakistan War in which he described Indians as "bastards." Kissinger has since expressed his regret over the comments.

In 1973, Kissinger negotiated the end to the Yom Kippur War, which had begun with a surprise attack against Israel by the Syrian military and by the Egyptian army one day later. Kissinger has published lengthy and dramatic telephone transcripts of his activities during this period in the 2002 book "Crisis." With Kissinger's support—which was reluctant at first—the U.S military conducted the largest military airlift in history. American action contributed to the 1973 OPEC embargo against the United States, which was lifted in March 1974. Israel regained the territory it lost in the early fighting and gained new territories from the Arabs, including land in Syria east of land previously captured Golan Heights, and additionally on the western bank of the Suez Canal (although they did lose some territory on the eastern side of the Suez Canal that had been in Israeli hands since the end of the Six Day War. Kissinger pressured the Israelis to cede some of the newly captured land back to the Arabs, contributing to the first phases of lasting Israeli-Egyptian peace. The move saw a warming in U.S.–Egyptian relations, bitter since the '50s, as the country moved away from its former pro-Soviet stance and into a close partnership with the United States. The peace was finalized in 1978 when U.S. president Jimmy Carter mediated the Camp David Accords, during which Israel returned the Sinai in exchange for an Egyptian agreement to recognize Israeli statehood and end hostility.
Kissinger being sworn in as Secretary of State, September 22 1973. President Nixon and Kissinger's mother, Paula, look on.

Normal relations with Latin America were continued, and the United States continued to recognize and maintain relationships with anti-communist and non-communist governments, democratic and authoritarian alike. John F. Kennedy's Alliance for Progress was ended in 1973, the same year as Augusto Pinochet's coup against Salvador Allende in Chile.

Chilean Socialist presidential candidate Salvador Allende was elected by a narrow plurality in 1970, causing serious concern in Washington due to his openly Marxist and pro-Cuban politics. While the Nixon administration initially considered authorizing the CIA to organize a military coup that would prevent Allende's inauguration and presumably call new elections, the plan was aborted because the administration doubted any of the willing factions had a chance. The extent of Kissinger's involvement in or support of these plans is unknown. US–Chilean relations remained frosty during Salvador Allende's tenure; following the complete nationalization of the partially US-owned copper mines and the Chilean subsidiary of the US-based ITT, as well as other Chilean businesses, the US implemented partial economic sanctions, claiming that the Chilean government had greatly undervalued fair compensation for the nationalization by subtracting what it deemed "excess profits." The CIA provided funding for the mass anti-government strikes in 1972 and 1973; during this period, Kissinger made several controversial statements regarding Chile's government, stating that "the issues are much too important for the Chilean voters to be left to decide for themselves" and "I don't see why we need to stand by and watch a country go communist due to the irresponsibility of its people." These remarks sparked outrage among many commentators, who considered them patronizing and disparaging of Chile's sovereignty. In September 1973, Allende was either assassinated or committed suicide during a military coup launched by Army Commander-in-Chief Augusto Pinochet, who became President. During a later visit to Chile, Kissinger told Pinochet that the US was concerned about the junta's human rights violations but was sympathetic to its anti-communist stance. US–Chilean relations significantly improved and remained warm until Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter defeated President Gerald Ford in 1976 and implemented a tough stance against any state that violated human rights, regardless of its friendliness toward America.

In July 2001, the Chilean high court granted investigating judge Juan Guzman the right to question Kissinger about the 1973 killing of American journalist Charles Horman at the hands of the Chilean military following the coup. The judge’s questions were relayed to Kissinger via diplomatic routes but went unanswered.

Kenneth Maxwell's review (in Foreign Affairs November–December 2003) of Peter Kornbluh's book The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability pinpointed Kissinger's and the U.S. government's awareness of plans made by Operation Condor, including their successful plan to assassinate Orlando Letelier on U.S. soil. Operation Condor was a campaign of kidnapping and murder coordinated among the intelligence and security services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Letelier, a former minister of Allende's Popular Unity government, was ultimately killed in 1976 in Washington D.C. along with his American colleague Ronni Moffitt.

A 1978 cable released in 2000 under Chile declassification project showed that the South American intelligence chiefs involved in Condor "kept in touch with one another through a US communications installation in the Panama Canal Zone which covered all of Latin America". Robert E. White, the US ambassador to Paraguay, was concerned that the US connection to Condor might be revealed during the then ongoing investigation into the 1976 assassination of Letelier. Kornbluh and Maxwell both draw the conclusion from this and other materials that the U.S. State Department, on Kissinger's watch, had foreknowledge of the assassination.

On May 31, 2001, French judge Roger Le Loire requested a summons served on Henry Kissinger while he was staying at the Hôtel Ritz in Paris. Loire claimed to want to question Kissinger for alleged U.S. involvement in Operation Condor as well as the death of French nationals under the Chilean junta. As a result, Kissinger left Paris that evening, and Loire's inquiries were directed to the U.S. State Department.

On September 10, 2001, a civil suit was filed in a Washington, D.C., federal court by the family of Gen. René Schneider, former Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army, asserting that Kissinger gave the order for the elimination of Schneider because he refused to endorse plans for a military coup. Schneider was killed by coup-plotters loyal to General Roberto Viaux in a botched kidnapping attempt, but U.S. involvement with the plot is disputed, as declassified transcripts show that Nixon and Kissinger had ordered the coup "turned off" a week prior to the killing, fearing that Viaux had no chance. As a part of the suit, Schneider’s two sons are attempting to sue Kissinger and then-CIA director Richard Helms for $3 million. (Note: Helms died in 2002.)

On September 11, 2001, the 28th anniversary of the Pinochet coup, Chilean human rights lawyers filed a criminal case against Kissinger along with Augusto Pinochet, former Bolivian general and president Hugo Banzer, former Argentine general and dictator Jorge Rafael Videla, and former Paraguayan president Alfredo Stroessner for alleged involvement in Operation Condor. The case was brought on behalf of some fifteen victims of Operation Condor, ten of whom were Chilean.

Kissinger initially supported the normalization of US–Cuban relations, broken since 1961 (all US-Cuban trade was blocked in February 1962, a few weeks after the exclusion of Cuba from the Organisation of American States under US pressure). However, he quickly changed his mind and followed Kennedy's policy. After Fidel Castro's involvement in the struggle in Angola and Mozambique, Kissinger supported the National Union for a Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas Savimbi, the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) insurgencies, as well as the CIA-supported advance of South African troops in Angola. Kissinger made it clear that unless Cuba withdrew its forces from Angola and Mozambique relations would not be normalized.

Kissinger took a similar line that he had toward Chile when the Argentine military, led by Jorge Videla, toppled the democratic government of Isabel Perón in 1976 and consolidated power, launching brutal reprisals and "disappearances" against political opponents. During a meeting with Argentine foreign minister César Augusto Guzzetti, Kissinger assured him that the United States was an ally, but urged him to "get back to normal procedures" quickly before the US Congress reconvened and had a chance to consider sanctions.

In 1974, a pacific left-wing coup, known as the Carnation Revolution, took place in Portugal, chasing off Marcelo Caetano, Oliveira Salazar's successor; the new government proceeded to quickly give up its former colonies, leaving a power vacuum in the southern African states of Angola and Mozambique. Fidel Castro sent Cuban troops into Angola and successfully assisted the Marxist-Leninist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) defending the nation from the invasion of the U.S. and European supported South-African apartheid regime. In 1976 South African troops withdrew due to U.S. Congressional opposition.

Eduardo Mondlane, FRELIMO's head Mozambican Liberation Front, was assassinated in 1969 by Aginter Press, the Portuguese branch of Gladio, supported by Kissinger.

The Portuguese decolonization process that had brought the U.S.'s attention to the newly-independent Angola and Mozambique also brought American attention to the small but densely populated newly-independent former Portuguese colony of East Timor in the Indonesian archipalego. Indonesian president Suharto was a strong American ally in the Pacific and began to mobilize the army, preparing to annex the nascent state, which had become increasingly dominated by the popular leftist and Chinese-supported FRETILIN party. In December 1975, Suharto discussed the invasion plans during a meeting with Kissinger and President Ford in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta. Both Ford and Kissinger made clear that U.S. relations with Indonesia would remain strong and that it would not object to the proposed annexation. U.S. arms sales to Indonesia continued, and Suharto went ahead with the annexation plan, meeting fierce resistance from the native East Timorese. The army responded with indiscriminate massacres; it is said that some 200,000 East Timorese lost their lives during the 24-year occupation due to starvation and army massacres. The Indonesian government's recognition of East Timor as the province of Timor Timur was not accepted internationally. Repression on the part of the military and its collaborators was especially intense during the initial invasion and following a UN-supervised East Timorese vote for independence in March 1999. East Timor achieved independence in late 1999. The U.S. maintained friendly diplomatic ties with Suharto during the 1990s, but with the end of the Cold War, felt more free to criticize the regime for its actions in East Timor.

Kissinger, like the rest of the Nixon administration, faced extreme unpopularity with the anti-war Left, particularly after the secret US bombing of Cambodia was revealed. However, few doubted his intellect and diplomatic skill, and he became one of the better-liked members of the Nixon administration, which some Americans grew to view as cynical and self-serving. Kissinger was not connected with the Watergate scandal that would eventually ruin Nixon and many of his closest aides; this greatly increased Kissinger's reputation as he became known as the "clean man" of the bunch. At the height of his popularity, he was even regarded as something of a sex symbol and seen dating such starlets as Jill St. John, Shirley MacLaine, and Candice Bergen. There was even discussion of ending the requirement that a US president be born in America so that Kissinger could have a chance to run.

Kissinger left office, when former Democratic Governor of Georgia and "Washington outsider" Jimmy Carter, defeated Gerald Ford in the 1976 presidential elections. During the campaign Carter criticized Kissinger, arguing he was "single-handedly" managing all of America's foreign relations. Carter was later defeated by Republican presidential candidate Ronald Reagan in 1980. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Kissinger played a relatively minor role in the US government, because the neoconservatives, who had come to dominate the Republican Party and the Reagan administration from 1981 to 1989, considered Nixonian détente to be a policy of unwise accommodation with the Soviet Union. Kissinger continued to participate in policy groups, such as the Trilateral Commission, and to do political consulting, speaking, and writing. He would often appear as a foreign-policy commentator on American broadcast networks.

In 2002, President George W. Bush appointed Kissinger to chair a committee to investigate the events of the September 11 attacks. This led to criticism from Congressional Democrats who accused Kissinger of being secretive and not supportive of the public's right to know. Leading Democrats insisted that Kissinger file financial disclosures to reveal any conflicts of interest. Both Bush and Kissinger claimed that Kissinger did not need to file such forms, since he would not be receiving a salary. However, following continual Democratic pressure, Kissinger cited conflicts of interest with his clients and stepped down as chairman on December 13, 2002.

In 2005, Kissinger offered a public apology for using foul language in 1971 to describe Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi and Indians in general. Declassified transcripts show that Kissinger had disparaged the independence movement in East Pakistan, predicting that an independent Bangladesh would become a failed third world country. The comments underscored US hostility toward India, which was supportive of the Bengali guerrillas and was backed by the Soviet Union. The Pakistani Army violently suppressed the independence movement in the East, causing an influx of Bengali refugees into India and exacerbating longstanding Indo-Pakistani tensions. Pakistani forces were eventually forced to withdraw and an independent Bangladesh was established in East Pakistan's place. Despite international condemnation of the conduct of Pakistani forces during the conflict, US-Pakistani relations remained strong based both on concerns of growing Indo-Soviet hegemony in the region and Pakistan's status as an ally of China.

In 2006, it was reported that Kissinger was meeting regularly with President George W. Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney to offer advice on the War in Iraq. Kissinger acknowledged that the advice he gave was that victory was the only acceptable exit strategy for the United States in Iraq. Perversely, it was the same exclusive strategy that he pursued in Vietnam to utter failure and the loss of tens of thousands of American soldiers (under his watch). The only surprise to the Kissinger philosophy was that the current American leaders were following it.

A revival of interest in Henry Kissinger came during the new millennium, when journalist Christopher Hitchens wrote The Trial of Henry Kissinger, a scathing critique of Kissinger's policy that accused him of war crimes, particularly for his policy toward Vietnam, Cyprus, Cambodia, and Chile. Kissinger became a focal point of criticism from the political Left and certain human rights NGOs. The Trial of Henry Kissinger was later adapted into a documentary that predominantly featured Hitchens as narrator.

After World War II, the MI6 and the CIA organized secret "stay-behind" anticommunist paramilitary organizations, originally to counter an eventual invasion by the Soviet Union. However, those anticommunist networks, dubbed Gladio, which were connected to ODESSA's ratlines through the Gehlen organization, have been involved in various terrorist acts: during Italy's strategy of tension, in Turkey with the support of the ultra-nationalist Grey Wolves and various military coups, in Greece helping the "Regime of Colonels" take the power in 1967, in Spain during the 1976 Montejurra terrorist incident, and also in Argentina, during the June 20, 1973 Ezeiza massacre, when the Alianza Anticomunista Argentina ("Triple A") opened up fire on the mass of left-wing peronists. Gladio's existence, which was closely linked to Propaganda Due, a masonic lodge also known as "P2", was officially disclosed by Italian Prime minister Giulio Andreotti in 1990. According to a November 18, 1990 article by The Observer, quoted by Statewatch:

"Declassified secret service papers reveal that Ted Shackleton, deputy chief of the CIA station in Rome in the 1970’s introduced the notorious Licio Gelli — head of the neofascist P2 masonic lodge and for years a fugitive in Argentina — to General Alexander Haig, then Nixon's chief of staff, and later, from 1974 to 1979, NATO Supreme Commander. P2 was a right-wing shadow government, ready to take over Italy, that included four Cabinet Ministers, all three intelligence chiefs, 48 members of parliament, 160 military officers, bankers, industrialists, top diplomats and the Army Chief of Staff. After meetings between Gelli, Italian military brass and CIA men in the embassy, Gladio was given renewed blessing — and more money — by Haig and the then head of the National Security Council, Henry Kissinger. Just how those and later funds were spent is a key point in the Casson investigations."

On May 31, 2001, French judge Roger Le Loire requested a summons served on Kissinger while he was staying at the Ritz Hotel in Paris. Loire claimed to want to question Kissinger for alleged US involvement in Operation Condor as well as the death of French nationals under the Chilean junta. As a result, Kissinger left Paris that evening, and Loire's inquiries were directed to the US State Department.

In July 2001, the Chilean high court granted investigating judge Juan Guzman the right to question Kissinger about the 1973 killing of American journalist Charles Horman, whose execution at the hands of the Chilean military following the coup was dramatized in the 1982 Costa-Gavras film, Missing. The judge’s questions were relayed to Kissinger via diplomatic routes but went unanswered.

In August 2001, Argentine Judge Rodolfo Canicoba sent a letter rogatory to the US State Department, in accordance with the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT), requesting a deposition by Kissinger to aid the judge's investigation of Operation Condor.

On September 10, 2001, a civil suit was filed in a Washington, DC, federal court by the family of Gen. René Schneider, former Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army, asserting that Kissinger gave the order for the elimination of Schneider because he refused to endorse plans for a military coup. Schneider was killed by coup-plotters loyal to General Roberto Viaux in a botched kidnapping attempt, but US involvement with the plot is disputed, as declassified transcripts show that Nixon and Kissinger had ordered the coup "turned off" a week prior to the killing, fearing that Viaux had no chance. As a part of the suit, Schneider’s two sons are attempting to sue Kissinger and then-CIA director Richard Helms for $3 million.

On September 11, 2001, the 28th anniversary of the Pinochet coup, Chilean human rights lawyers filed a criminal case against Kissinger along with Augusto Pinochet, former Bolivian general and president Hugo Banzer, former Argentine general and dictator Jorge Rafael Videla, and former Paraguayan president Alfredo Stroessner for alleged involvement in Operation Condor. The case was brought on behalf of some fifteen victims of Operation Condor, ten of whom were Chilean.

In late 2001, the Brazilian government canceled an invitation for Kissinger to speak in São Paulo because it could no longer guarantee his immunity from judicial action.

Kenneth Maxwell's review, in Foreign Affairs November/December 2003, of Peter Kornbluh's book The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability, discussed Kissinger's relationship with Augusto Pinochet's regime, in particular concerning operation Condor and Orlando Letelier's assassination, in Washington, DC, in 1976.

In 2002, during a brief visit to the UK, a petition for Kissinger's arrest was filed by the High Court in London based on Indochinese civilian casualties and environmental damage resulting from US bombing campaigns in North Vietnam and Cambodia in the period between 1969 and 1975. Simultaneously, Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón, who had engaged in a failed attempt to get Pinochet extradited from the United Kingdom for questioning, requested that Interpol detain Kissinger for questioning. British authorities refused his request.

East Timor Action Network (ETAN) activists have repeatedly sought to question Kissinger during his book tours for his role in the Ford administration in supporting Suharto and the Indonesian occupation and genocide of the Timorese in 1975. Transcripts of Ford and Kissinger's greenlight for the invasion are available on the National Security Archive.

As detailed above in the section 1971 Bangladesh (East Pakistan) War, Kissinger had knowledge of the 1971 atrocities committed by the Pakistani army and its allies during the war, but did not advise President Nixon to put pressure on the Pakistani government to stop them.

Kissinger owns a consulting firm, Kissinger Associates, and is a partner in Kissinger McLarty Associates with Mack McLarty, former Chief of Staff to President Bill Clinton. He also serves on various boards of directors including Gulfstream Aerospace and Hollinger International, a Chicago-based newspaper group.

In 1998, Kissinger became an honorary citizen of Fürth, Germany, his hometown. He has been a life-long supporter of the Spielvereinigung Fürth football club and is now an honorary member.

He served as Chancellor of the College of William and Mary from February 10, 2001 to the Summer of 2005.

In February 2000 then-president of Indonesia Abdurrahman Wahid appointed Kissinger as a political advisor. He also serves as an honorary advisor to the United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce.

Kissinger has long been a satirised or lampooned figure in America and overseas, due in part to his controversial nature and distinctive voice and mannerisms. References include:

* In the British comedy special "The Strange Case of the End of Civilisation As We Know It", a character called "Dr. Gropinger" with the voice and mannerisms of Kissinger is assassinated at the story's beginning, leading to the events of the plot. Gropinger is portrayed as rather bumbling and useless without his diary.
* In several installments of the often-political comic strip Doonesbury, students in Kissinger's university classes are shown asking questions about his most famous and controversial political decisions. Kissinger himself is not depicted, but is represented exclusively by dialogue.
* In an episode of The Simpsons ($pringfield (Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Legalized Gambling)), Homer Simpson finds Kissinger's glasses in a toilet. Kissinger is shown, sans glasses, speaking to Monty Burns, who wonders where the glasses are. Kissinger thinks to himself that nobody must ever know he dropped them in the toilet ("Not I," he thinks, "who drafted the Paris Peace Accord."). Later in that episode, we find out that he was hospitalized after walking into a wall.
* In an episode of Futurama (War is the H-Word), Kissinger's head is assigned to aid Bender in peace negotiations between Earth and Spheron 1.
* In an episode of the short-lived Dilbert animated television series, Henry Kissinger appeared as a Vegas-style Lounge Singer in Elbonia.
* The Monty Python troupe recorded a song entitled "Henry Kissinger", in which Kissinger's attributes, both mental and physical, are praised.
* One member of Monty Python, John Cleese, went on to mention Kissinger many times in the sitcom Fawlty Towers, usually involving gags of sarcasm from Cleese's character, Basil, retorting that the other person is stupid for asking an obvious question.
* In Joseph Heller's novel Good as Gold the protagonist, Bruce Gold, plans on writing a book about Kissinger and believes that he was not Jewish.
* In the James Bond movie The Man with the Golden Gun, Sheriff J.W. Pepper protests his arrest by Bangkok police by bellowing, "I'll get Henry Kissinger!"
* Kissinger appears as a major character in John Adams' 1987 opera Nixon in China. The character is a semi-comic figure, with an ungainly appearance in the opera's central ballet.
* Kissinger appeared as himself briefly in a 1983 episode of the soap opera Dynasty, along with former president Gerald Ford and his wife Betty.
* In a host segment of the Mystery Science Theatre 3000 episode Overdrawn at the Memory Bank, Crow and Servo order a monkey and name it Henry after Henry Kissinger "Because of his scowl."
* Kissinger was played by Paul Sorvino in the 1995 movie Nixon, and by Saul Rubinek in the 1999 comic take on the Nixon downfall Dick.
* In an episode of The Venture Bros. (I Know Why the Caged Bird Kills) a supervillain known as Dr. Henry Killinger acts as a diplomat and resembles Kissinger in voice and appearance, (with a hint of Mary Poppins in methods and goals).
* The band Le Tigre writes in their song Punker Plus off of their album This Island that they "want Kissinger on trial for real."Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.
Virtual Magic is a human knowledge database blog. Text Based On Information From Wikipedia, Under The GNU Free Documentation License. Copyright (c) 2007 Virtual Magic. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

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