AT&T is the largest provider of both local and long distance telephone services, wireless service under the brand Cingular Wireless, and DSL Internet access in the United States. The current company, which is based in San Antonio, Texas, United States, was formed in 2005 by SBC Communications' purchase of its former parent company, AT&T Corp. As a part of the merger, SBC shed its name and took on the iconic AT&T moniker and the T stock-trading symbol (for "telephone"). Although the corporation is considered SBC renamed, most of its major subsidiaries were part of AT&T prior to 1984, including the Bell Operating Companies and the long distance division. However, AT&T lacks the vertical integration it once had, which had been the reason for the anti-trust suits that led to the 1984 breakup.
AT&T offers a broad spectrum of telecommunication services all under the AT&T brand, including:
* Wireless: Cingular Wireless
* DSL Internet: AT&T Yahoo! and BellSouth FastAccess DSL
* Dial-Up Internet: AT&T WorldNet and BellSouth Dialup Internet
* IP Television: AT&T U-verse TV
* Satellite Television: partnerships with Dish Network and DirecTV
* Cable Television: BellSouth Americast (in limited markets)
* VoIP: AT&T CallVantage
* Wireline Phone Service: Local phone service for residential, business, and wholesale
* Long Distance: AT&T Long Distance and BellSouth Long Distance (BSLD)
* AT&T Unity Plan
These services can be bundled together, and denoted as such on one consolidated bill.
On January 31, 2005, SBC announced that it would purchase AT&T for more than $16 billion. The announcement came almost 8 years after SBC and AT&T called off their first merger talks and nearly a year after initial merger talks between AT&T and BellSouth fell apart. AT&T stockholders, meeting in Denver, approved the merger on June 30, 2005. The U.S. Department of Justice cleared the merger on October 27, 2005, and the Federal Communications Commission approved it on October 31, 2005. The merger was finalized on November 18, 2005. SBC announced that the name of the merged company would be AT&T, Inc., and it adopted an updated logo.
On December 1, 2005 the combined company began trading under the historic "T" stock ticker symbol on the NYSE. To differentiate from the preceding company, AT&T is formally known as "AT&T Inc.", while the preceding company was "AT&T Corp."
On Friday December 29, 2006, the FCC approved the acquisition of BellSouth valued at approximately $86 billion (or 1.325 shares of AT&T for each share of BellSouth at the close of trading December 29, 2006). The new combined company retained the name AT&T. When completed, this deal consolidated ownership of both Cingular Wireless and YELLOWPAGES.COM, once joint ventures between BellSouth and AT&T. Wireless services would be offered under the AT&T name.
Of the 22 Bell Operating Companies which AT&T owned prior to the 1984 agreement to divest, 10 have become a part of the new AT&T Inc. with the completion of their acquisition of BellSouth Corporation on December 29, 2006:
* BellSouth Telecommunications (f/k/a Southern Bell/South Central Bell)
* Illinois Bell
* Indiana Bell
* Michigan Bell
* Nevada Bell (f/k/a Bell Telephone Company of Nevada)
* Ohio Bell
* Pacific Bell (f/k/a Pacific Telephone & Telegraph)
* Southwestern Bell
* Wisconsin Bell (f/k/a Wisconsin Telephone)
AT&T owns the following operating companies not considered Bell Operating Companies:
* Southern New England Telephone — Now wholly owned, the original AT&T held 16.8% interest prior to 1984.
* Woodbury Telephone
On January 15, 2006, AT&T began using new d/b/a names for its Bell Operating Companies and their holding companies. The following d/b/a list shows the d/b/a names of each company, with its true legal name in parentheses, listed in order of acquisition. Holding companies are listed in bold; the only exception is Southwestern Bell Telephone, L.P., which is not a holding company, as it has always been held by AT&T Inc. since its inception as Southwestern Bell Corporation.
AT&T Corporation and its holdings have been omitted, as its companies continue to do business under their true, legal name.
* AT&T Inc.
o AT&T Arkansas (Southwestern Bell Telephone, L.P.)
o AT&T Kansas (Southwestern Bell Telephone, L.P.)
o AT&T Missouri (Southwestern Bell Telephone, L.P.)
o AT&T Oklahoma (Southwestern Bell Telephone, L.P.)
o AT&T Southwest (Southwestern Bell Telephone, L.P. as a whole)
o AT&T Texas (Southwestern Bell Telephone, L.P.)
o AT&T West (Pacific Telesis Group)
+ AT&T California (Pacific Bell Telephone Company)
+ AT&T Nevada (Nevada Bell Telephone Company)
o AT&T East (Southern New England Telecommunications Corporation)
+ AT&T Connecticut (The Southern New England Telephone Company)
+ AT&T Woodbury (The Woodbury Telephone Company)
o AT&T Midwest (AT&T Teleholdings, Inc.)
+ AT&T Illinois (Illinois Bell Telephone Company)
+ AT&T Indiana (Indiana Bell Telephone Company)
+ AT&T Michigan (Michigan Bell Telephone Company)
+ AT&T Ohio (The Ohio Bell Telephone Company)
+ AT&T Wisconsin (Wisconsin Bell, Inc.)
o AT&T South (BellSouth Corporation)
+ AT&T Alabama (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
+ AT&T Florida (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
+ AT&T Georgia (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
+ AT&T Kentucky (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
+ AT&T Louisiana (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
+ AT&T Mississippi (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
+ AT&T North Carolina (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
+ AT&T South Carolina (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
+ AT&T Southeast (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc. as a whole)
+ AT&T Tennessee (BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc.)
AT&T's current board mainly consists of members of SBC's board of directors.
* Edward E. Whitacre Jr. — Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
* James A. Henderson
* Gilbert F. Amelio
* William F. Aldinger III
* August A. Busch III
* Martin K. Eby, Jr.
* Charles F. Knight
* Jon C. Madonna
* Lynn M. Martin
* Ronald M. Crump
* John B. McCoy
* Mary S. Metz
* Toni Rembe
* S. Donley Ritchey
* Joyce M. Roche
* Randall L. Stephenson
* Laura D'Andrea Tyson
* Patricia P. Upton
In 2006, the Electronic Frontier Foundation lodged a class action lawsuit (Hepting vs. AT&T) which alleged that AT&T had allowed agents of the National Security Agency (NSA) to monitor phone and Internet communications of AT&T customers without warrants. If true, this would violate the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 and the First and Fourth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution. AT&T has yet to confirm or deny that monitoring by the NSA is occurring. In April 2006 a retired former AT&T technician, Mark Klein, lodged an affidavit supporting this allegation. The Department of Justice has stated they will intervene in this lawsuit by means of State Secrets Privilege.
In May 2006, USA Today reported that all international and domestic calling records had been handed over to the National Security Agency by AT&T, Verizon, SBC, and BellSouth for the purpose of creating a massive calling database. The portions of the new AT&T that had been part of SBC Communications before November 18, 2005 were not mentioned.
* AT&T Bricktown Ballpark — Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (formerly Southwestern Bell Bricktown Ballpark, SBC Bricktown Ballpark)
* AT&T Center — San Antonio, Texas (formerly SBC Center)
* AT&T Champions Classic — Valencia, California
* AT&T Classic — Atlanta, Georgia (formerly Bellsouth Classic)
* AT&T Cotton Bowl Classic (formerly Mobil Cotton Bowl Classic, Southwestern Bell Cotton Bowl Classic, SBC Cotton Bowl Classic) — played in Dallas, Texas, at the Cotton Bowl stadium.
* AT&T National
* AT&T Park — San Francisco, California (formerly Pacific Bell Park, SBC Park)
* AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am
* AT&T Red River Rivalry — Dallas, Texas (formerly Red River Shootout, SBC Red River Rivalry)
* Jones AT&T Stadium — Lubbock, Texas (formerly Clifford B. and Audrey Jones Stadium, Jones SBC Stadium)
* AT&T WilliamsF1 Team — based in Grove, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom